The percentage increase/decrease from initial value (V_{initial}) to final value (V_{final}) is equal to the initial and final values difference divided by the initial value times 100%:

percentage increase = (*V*_{final} - *V*_{initial}) / *V*_{initial} × 100%

Price percentage increase from initial value of $1000 to final value of $1200 is caluclated by:

percentage increase = ($1200 - $1000) / $1000 × 100%

= 0.2 × 100% = 20%

Price percentage increase from initial value of $1000 to final value of $800 is caluclated by:

percentage increase = ($800 - $1000) / $1000 × 100%

= -0.2 × 100% = -20%

So

percentage decrease = 20%

The difference d is equal to the initial value *V*_{0} times the percentage increase/decrease p divided by 100:

*d* = *V*_{0} × *p* / 100

The final value *V*_{1} is equal to the initial value *V*_{0} plus the difference d:

*V*_{1} = *V*_{0} + *d*

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